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Istoria marcii Warszawa

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warszawa warszawa logoWarszawa was a Polish automobile marque manufactured from 1951 to 1973 by the Fabryka Samochodów Osobowych of Warsaw. Named after the city of Warsaw, the Warszawa was till 1957 identical to the Soviet
Pobeda, built under license. In 1957 the body style was changed to the three box shape by then becoming mainstream in Europe, though the car retained a rather heavy style to western eyes.
The Warszawa was the first new-design Polish car built after the Second World War. Warszawas were popular as taxis because of their sturdiness and ruggedness. However, due to their weight they were underpowered and had high fuel consumption. In total, 254,471 cars were made.
A Warszawa 210, a 1960s prototype that eventually was cancelled and passed on to East Germany, where it formed the basis for the Wartburg 353
The Warszawa was the basis for two Polish vans, the Żuk (made from 1958 to 1997) and the Nysa (made from 1958 to 1994).
When Poland regained its independence following World War I, the retreating armies had left behind a huge number of military vehicles on Polish territory. Many were totally damaged but thousands only needed to be repaired to be useful again. Needing vehicles for its army, the new republic s Defense Ministry set up the Centralne Warsztaty Samochodowe (Central Auto Works) or CWS in Warsaw to repair the abandoned cars and trucks. When the number of repairable vehicles began to dwindle, CWS began to import new ones, including Ford Model-Ts, which were converted into the desired military vehicles.
Meanwhile, Polish entrepreneurs and engineers began developing their own cars. In 1921 in Warsaw Stefan KozLowski and Antoni FrAckowiak built three small vehicles called the SKAF. They sat two persons and could go 25 m.p.h. The car was advertised for sale but not much else is known. Neither photos nor the car itself exist today. In 1924 MikoLaj Karpowski built a large open car named the Polonia, which seated four and went 60 m.p.h. He could not attract investors and the only one ever made was raffled off, its fate unknown.

Other cars produced in Poland in the 20s and 30s included the Stetysz (20 cars), AS (200), and WM (2). But the businessmen interested in bringing automobiles to Poland concentrated on bringing foreign cars into the country for sale. The Depression of the 1930s put most of the manufacturers and importers out of business.
On the other hand, the Defense Ministry s CWS began making its own cars in the early 20s, offering the first for sale in 1927 and converting into a private company. The automobiles were almost wholly constructed of Polish-made components. With names like T1, T2 and T8, hundreds of CWS cars were sold and their reliability and performance were as good as any in the world. Production ceased in 1931 and the company, now called PaNstwowe ZakLady Inzynerii (National Engineering Works) began making cars under license from Italian firm Fiat. The Fiat was the first mass produced car in Poland and 10,000 were sold before the eve of World War II. Also, tax laws encouraged GM and Ford to assemble cars in Poland for the European market.
Abruptly ended by the war, car making was resumed afterward. The Fabryka Samochodów Osobowych (Passenger Automobile Factory) or FSO company was established. Under Soviet control, Polish-built versions of unreliable Russian models were made, like Warszawa and also popular Syrena (Mermaid). In 1965 Poland was allowed to sign a deal with Fiat to produce better cars - Fiat 125p. In 1973 the Fiat 126p began
production. This was the tiny car affectionately called the Maluch (baby). The government, wanting to appease the masses, wanted this utilitarian, relatively cheap vehicle so that the average wage earner could afford one. It sold well but once freedom returned to Poland and foreign models became more available, production ceased.
After an ill-fated investment by Korea s Daewoo, FSO became an independent producer in 2004, still putting out Daewoo models under agreement with GM, Daewoo s eventual buyer. Presently, a Ukrainian company is majority shareholder in FSO. In 2006 the company secured government backed loans and currently is licensed to make the Chevrolet Aveo. GM builds cars in Gliwice, Toyota has a gearbox plant in Poland, parts maker Delphi has a plant in Gdansk, and American Axle will build a plant in Olawa. Volkswagen has operated a factory in Poznan for many years. Today, Poland is quickly catching up to the rest of Europe in terms of car ownership, but an independently designed and manufactured Polish car is not in the current picture.

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    Václav PurÄ 2011-10-29 17:59:08

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